direct and indirect speech rules
if you want to know direct and indirect speech rules in a very easy way than you are at right today i will discuss direct and indirect speech rules in this article with explanations and examples
We may report the speaker’s words in two ways
we may quote his actual words. This is called direct speech
we may report what speaker say without quoting his exact words then the reported speech is called direct speech.
direct and indirect speech rules
When the reporting verb is in the Past Tense, speech of all Present tenses of the Direct are changed into the corresponding Past Tenses. Thus
A simple present becomes a simple past.
Direct: He said, 1 am unwell
Indirect: He said (that) he was unwell.
(b) A present continuous tense changes into a past continuous tense
Direct He said, “Father is writing letter:
Indirect. He said that his Father was writing books
(c) A present perfect tense changes into a past perfect tense
Direct. Haseeb said,1 have passed the examination
Indirect. Haseeb said (that) he had passed the examination
Note-The helping verb of future tense shall is changed into should. The will of the Future Tense is changed its form into would or should.
As a rule, the simple past tense in the Direct speech becomes the past perfect tense in the Indirect speech.
Direct. Bilawal said the cat died in the night
Indirect. Bilawal said that the cat had died in the night
Direct 1 know her address said Gopi
Indirect. Gopi said he knows/knew her address.
Direct The teacher said. The earth goes round the sun
Indirect. The teacher said the earth went round the sun.
Direct: French is easy to learn, she said,
Indirect. She said French was easy to learn.
We use past tense when we are no sure that statement is true or not specially when we reported objectively
If the principle verb is in the Present Tense, the tenses of the Direct Speech do not change its form. For example, we can rewrite the above examples, putting the principle verb in the Present Tense, thus:
He says he is unwell
He has just said his master is writing books.
He says he has passed the examination,
He says the cat died in the night.
The pronouns of the Direct speech sentences are changed necessary, whenever we have to show that their relations are with the reporter and his hearer, rather than with the original speaker, are indicated. Observe the following examples:
Direct: Anwar said to me, I don’t believe you
Indirect: Anwar said he didn’t believe me.
Direct: Amjad said to him, 1 don’t believe you
Indirect : Amjad said he didn’t believe him.
Words expressing nearness in time or place are generally changed into words expressing distance thus like below in the chart
Now changed to
The next day
The day before
The night before
These changes will not occur if the speech is reported during the same period or at the same place;
direct sentence: Aliya says I am glad to be here this evening
Indirect: Alia says she is glad to be there this evening
Rules for changing interrogative sentences
to change the direct speech of interrogative sentences into indirect we use some like asked, inquired, whether and if
Amjad said to me what are you doing
Amjed asked me what I was doing
Where do you live? asked the stranger
Th stranger enquired where I lived
The policemen said to me where are you going
The policemen enquired where i was going
He said will you listen to such men
He asked them whether you would listen to such a men
Commands and requests sentences
To change commands and requesting speech of direct sentences we use some verb to change their mood of imperative into the infinite
Ali said to Ahmed go away
Ali ordered Ahmed to go away
Amjad said to him please wait here till I return
Amjad requested him to wait there till he returned
Call the first witness said the judge
The ordered them to call the first witness
Ali shouted let me go
Ali shouted to them to let him go
Basit said be quiet and listen to my words
Basit urged them to be quiet and listen to his words
Exclamations and wishes sentences rules
when reporting speech is exclamations and wishes then the indirect speech is introduced by some verb expressing exclamation or wish
Amjad said, ‘alas ! I am undone
Amjad exclaimed sadly that the he was undone
Babar said how clever I am !
Babar exclaimed that she was very clever
Hassan said bravo ! you have done well
Hassan applauded him saying that he had done well
So help me heaven ! Ahmed cried I will never steal again
Ahmed called upon heaven to witness his resolve never to steal again
hope you understand all points of direct and indirect speech rules any suggestion feedback will be well come in the comments section below